In healthy cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is predominantly located along the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. Upon initiation of apoptosis, PS loses its asymmetric distribution in the phospholipid bilayer and is translocated to the extracellular membrane where it can be detected with fluorescently labeled Annexin V. In early stage of apoptosis, the plasma membrane excludes viability dyes such as propidium iodide (PI) and 7-AAD. These cells will display only Annexin V staining but not a viability dye(PI/7AAD negative). However, in the late stage of apoptosis, the cell membrane loses integrity so Annexin V could bind to cytosolic PS, as well as cell update of a viability dye (PI/7AAD positive). Annexin V staining, paired with 7-AAD or PI is widely used to identify apoptotic stages by flow cytometry.
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FREE REVIEW ARTICLES
- Annexin V/beta5 Integrin Interactions Regulate Apoptosis of Growth Plate Chondrocyte, Wei Wang and Thorsten Kirsch. Annexin V/beta5 Integrin Interactions Regulate Apoptosis of Growth Plate Chondrocytes. J. Biol. Chem, 2006; 281: 30848 - 30856.
- Collagen/Annexin V Interactions Regulate Chondrocyte Mineralization, Hyon Jong Kim and Thorsten Kirsch. Collagen/Annexin V Interactions Regulate Chondrocyte Mineralization. J. Biol. Chem, 2008; 283: 10310 - 10317.
- The influence on the immunomodulatory effects of dying and dead cells of Annexin V, Luis E. Munoz, Sandra Franz, et al. The influence on the immunomodulatory effects of dying and dead cells of Annexin V. J. Leukoc. Biol, 2007; 81: 6 - 14.