X-gal (also abbreviated BCIG for 5-bromo-4-chloro-indolyl-Î²-D-galactopyranoside) is an organic compound consisting of galactose linked to a substituted indole. The compound was synthesized by Jerome Horwitz and collaborators in Detroit, MI, in 1964. The formal chemical name is often shortened to less accurate but also less cumbersome phrases such as bromochloroindoxyl galactoside.
Over the past two decades, dramatic progress has been made in many areas of medicine where hope once seemed out of reach. An infectious disease like HIV, considered intractable in the 1990s, is now controllable with anti-retroviral therapy; and the right combination of antibiotics can similarly control many difficult bacterial infections.
Protease inhibitor cocktails are a unique series of enzyme inhibitors that knock out specific proteases to avoid peptide bond hydrolysis and subsequent protein destruction. Protease inhibitors are vital to scientists engaged in proteomic research, protein expression, characterization, protein modification, protein profiling, and quantitative measurement of proteins to prevent destructive protein degradation.