1. Proteasome inhibitors are drugs that block the action of proteasomes, cellular complexes that break down proteins, like the p53 protein. Proteasome inhibitors are being studied in the treatment of cancer, especially multiple myeloma.
- WHAT IS A CALPAIN? A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.
- The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has included the use of metformin and sulfonylurea (SU) as first-lineanti-diabetic therapies world over since years. This remains, despite the knowledge that the combination results in a progressive decline in [beta]-cell function and by 3 years up to 50% of diabetic patients can require an additional pharmacological agent to maintain the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (UKPDS).
- Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immuno-suppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.