Biosensors have gained enormous attention in recent years in medicine and nanotechnology, where there is a growing interest in its application in tissue engineering. Since the development of the first oxygen biosensor by Lel and Clark in 1962, researchers in diverse fields have developed numerous biosensors for applications in medicine, biotechnology, and defense against bioterrorism, as well as foods, beverages, environmental and agricultural applications.

Recently, biosensors have shown immense potential for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are rapidly growing fields in biomedical engineering that present enormous potential for development of engineered tissue constructs for restoring the lost functions of diseased or damaged tissues and organs. Biosensors are frequently used in glucose monitoring. Enzymes, antibodies, and receptors have been widely used in biosensors as biological sensing elements. Biosensors have also shown potential for in vivo sensing of disease specific biomarkers. The device in an in vivo environment can monitor real-time biological signals, such as the release of proteins or antibodies in response to tissue damage, muscular dystrophy, cardiac infarction, inflammatory events or infections. Thus, biosensors possess a unique advantage to inform health-related complexities in a timely manner, which is a powerful tool for early stage disease detection and treatment in clinical settings.

To precisely sense the biological signals in a cellular microenvironment, an optimal probe possesses micro or nano dimensions. Research of nanobiosensors in combination with signaling therapeutic delivery devices for in vivo screening and treatment is in progress. Interestingly, biosensors with different micro- and nanostructured surfaces have been successfully used for both short-term and long-term in vivo studies. To date, the application of biosensors in biomedical engineering is still limited and is at its early stage of development, but the clinical potential can be realized. The combination of these two multidisciplinary technologies offers great promise for their eventual translation from bench to bed-side applications in the near future..

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