16 Frequently Asked Questions about Cefsulodin Sodium Salt

Cefsulodin 1

16 Frequently Asked Questions about Cefsulodin Sodium Salt

The sodium salt form of cefsulodin, a semi-synthetic, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic has a narrow spectrum of activity. Cefsulodin has specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus but little or no activity against other gram negative and gram positive bacteria.

 

1.What is cefsulodin sodium?

Cefsulodin Sodium is a semi-synthetic third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, with a structure similar to penicillins and beta-lactams.

 

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2.What is the mechanism of action?

Like β-lactams, cephalosporins interfere with PBP (penicillin binding protein) activity involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine cross link between alanine and lysine residues providing additional strength to the cell wall. Without a pentaglycine cross link, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised and ultimately leads to cell lysis and death. Resistance to cephalosporins is commonly due to cells containing plasmid-encoded β-lactamases.

                          

3.Which are the target bacteria of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

Cefsulodin has a specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It has no significant activity against other Gram-negative bacteria and very limited activity against Gram-positive bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. 

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4.What is the clinical application of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

Cefsulodin Sodium Salt is a useful drug in the treatment of surgical infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

5.What is the Lab application of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

Cefsulodin sodium is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (panels, discs, and MIC strips) primarily against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Clinically, AST results are used to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients.

6.What is the chemical name of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

7β-(D-α-sulpho-phenylacetamido)-3-(4-carbamoyl-l-pyridinio-methyl)- ceph-3em-4-carboxylate, monosodium salt.

7.What is the chemical formula of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

C22H19N4NaO8S2 Na

8.What is the appearance of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

White – yellowish crystalline powder.

9.What is the storage and handling information of Cefsulodin Sodium Salt?

Store at +4°C. For long term store at -20°C. Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated area.

Use only in an area with appropriate exhaust ventilation. Keep away from heat and source of ignition. Empty containers that pose a fire risk, evaporate residue under a fume hood. Ground all equipment containing material. Do not breathe the dust.

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10.How is Cefsulodin Sodium used in water testing?

Water Testing is done using the MI Agar Membrane filtration method. Cefsulodin sodium salt is the antibiotic added to MI agar as a contamination control that inhibits the growth of non-target bacteria.

11.What is the MI Agar membrane filtration method?

It is a membrane filtration method that allows the simultaneous detection of Total Coliforms(TC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) on one medium.

Two enzyme substrates are included in MI medium—a fluorogen reacts with the enzyme found in total coliforms (galactosidase), and a chromogen reacts with an enzyme found in E. coli (glucuronidase).  Cefsulodin, an antibiotic, is added to MI medium to inhibit non-target growth. After 24 hours of incubation at 35°C, total coliform colonies glow under a long-wave ultraviolet light (366 nanometers), and E. coli colonies appear blue under natural light.

Image result for MI Agar12.What does ‘Total Coliforms’ mean?

Total coliforms include bacterial species that may inhabit the intestines of warm-blooded animals or occur naturally in soil, vegetation, and water. They are usually found in fecally-polluted water and are often associated with disease outbreaks. Although they are not usually pathogenic themselves, their presence in drinking water indicates the possible presence of pathogens. E. coli, one species of the coliform group, is always found in feces and is, therefore, a more direct indicator of fecal contamination and the possible presence of enteric pathogens. In addition, some strains of E. coli are pathogenic.

13.Elaborate on the use of MI Agar Membrane filtration method?

The MI method has been validated for use with drinking water.  This method is especially suitable for enumerating bacteria in groundwater because, in ground-water studies, it is often desirable to enumerate both total coliforms and E. coli. The method can also be used to enumerate E. coli in surface waters; however, plates may be difficult to read because of non-target growth in moderately- or highly polluted waters. To overcome this issue Cefsulodin Sodium Salt (a third generation Cephalosporin antibiotic ) is added to the agar to inhibit the non-target growth.

14.What does MI stand for in MI Agar Membrane filtration method?

MI is the abbreviation for the two enzyme substrates used in the MI medium- the fluorogen 4-Methylumbelliferyl- β-Dgalactopyranoside (MUGal) and a chromogen Indoxyl- β-D-glucuronide (IBDG).

15.What is CIN?

Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar that has been formulated for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica.

 

CIN Agar

16.What is the application of CIN?

Y.enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult.

Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) is a selective media for isolation of Yersinia isolation. CIN has been shown to be more specific than other conventional selective agars, such as Salmonella-Shigella (SS), MacConkey (MAC), Cellobiose-Arginine-Lysine (CAL), pectin agars, and other lactose-containing media, for the differentiation of Yersinia spp. from contaminating bacteria.

 

References

Evaluation of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin agar for isolation of Yersinia spp. – Tan LK, Ooi PT, Carniel E, Thong KL

USGS Ohio Water Science Center

Evaluation of a Modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar for Isolation of Yersinia spp. – Lai Kuan Tan,Peck Toung Ooi, Elisabeth Carniel, and Kwai Lin Thong

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