Anthracyclines are anticancer compounds that were originally derived from Streptomyces and their anti-tumor activitieswere established in the 1960s. Anthracyclines are red aromatic polyketides and occur in variety of forms due to the structural differences in the aglycone and the different sugar residues attached.
- Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton. Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions...
- Daunorubicin or daunomycin (daunomycin cerubidine) is chemotherapeutic of the anthracycline family that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer. It is most commonly used to treat specific types of leukaemia (acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia). It was initially isolated from Streptomyces peucetius.
- It has been shown that cycloheximide (CHM), a well-known protein synthesis inhibitor, reduces Cytotoxicity induced by 1-B-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, nitrogen mustard, or X-irradiation in normal cells, such as small intestine or bone marrow cells.
- Calyculin A, a marine toxin isolated from Disodermia calyx, is a structurally distinct inhibitor of PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2). It has been shown that Calyculin A displays inhibitory properties towards the endogenous phosphatase of smooth muscle myosin B and induces contraction in the muscle fibers.
- LY294002 is a morpholine derivative of quercetin. It is a potent inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases) is an enzyme implicated in growth factor signal transduction by associating with receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Inhibitors of PI3Ks could potentially give a better understanding of the function and regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme...