Î²-Lactamases continue to be the leading cause of resistance to Î²-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. In recent years there has been an increased incidence and prevalence of extended-spectrum Î²-lactamases (ESBLs), enzymes that hydrolyze and cause resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam.
Introduction Beta-lactam antibiotics are used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. β-lactam antibiotics target the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) - a group of enzymes found attached in the cell membrane, which are involved in the cross-linking of the bacterial cell wall. The β-lactam ring portion of this group of antibiotics binds to these different PBPs, rendering them...
As a core structure in many antibiotics, beta lactam ring is a cyclic amide. Beta lactam antibiotics almost universally inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus induces the destruction of the bacteria cell. Bacteria have evolved an enzyme that combats this antibiotic and increases resistance to death induced by antibiotic means: the beta lactamase enzyme. Beta lactamase enzymes can be...