Î²-Lactamases continue to be the leading cause of resistance to Î²-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. In recent years there has been an increased incidence and prevalence of extended-spectrum Î²-lactamases (ESBLs), enzymes that hydrolyze and cause resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam.
- As a core structure in many antibiotics, the beta-lactam ring is a cyclic amide. Beta-lactam antibiotics almost universally inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus induce the destruction of bacterial cells. Bacteria have evolved an enzyme that combats this antibiotic and increases resistance to death induced by antibiotic means: the beta-lactamase enzyme. Beta-lactamase enzymes can be used in a multitude...