Discovery of Rapamycin Rapamycin is a macrocyclic triene antibiotic that binds to the cytosolic protein FK-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) and inhibits mTOR pathway by directly binding to the mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1). It is a potent immunosuppressant having a variety of uses both in vitro and in vivo and is used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation. Chemical structure of...
- Rolipram is commonly known as a drug used to treat depression. It is in the family of drugs referred to as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI). It promotes the release of norepinepherine, which in term produces a better mood and an alleviation of depression symptoms. Rolipram is actually a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor and it inhibits phosphodiesterase IV or PDE-IV, particularly the PDE-IVB subtype. Like most PDE4-inhibitors, it is an anti-inflammatory drug. Rolipram has been studied as a possible antidepressant, and it also has anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-tumor effects. Rolipram has also been proposed as a treatment for multiple sclerosis, as well, and recent studies show that rolipram may have antipsychotic effects.
- Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immuno-suppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.
- An immunosuppressant is any substance that performs immunosuppression of the immunedescribe the image system. They may be either exogenous, as immunosuppressive drugs, or endogenous, as, e. g., testosterone. When the immune system function is suppressed, there is an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancers.
- Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional complex that is activated in response to hypoxia and growth factors. HIF-1 plays a central role in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis.