Thapsigargin is derived from the plant Thapsia garganica that produces tumor promoters. This effect is a result of emptying the intracellular calcium stores, which leads to a chain of events that causes apoptosis. Mechanism of Action Chemical structure of Thapsigargin Thapsigargin is an inhibitor of sarco endoplasmic reticulum Ca2 ATPase (SERCA). It pumps calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the lumen...
- Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive and malignant form of gliomas, a group of tumors arising from glial cells of the brain. Glioblastomas are very difficult to treat due to the diffused nature of the tumor itself. The tumor cells have a distinct invasive feature of spreading and diffusing into different parts of the brain. This characteristic feature of these...
- Tumor necrosis factorâ€“related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent because it induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells.
- Combined treatment with a proteasome inhibitor and tumor necrosis factorâ€“related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising strategy for cancer therapy.
- Apoptosis, or cell suicide, is a form of cell death that is morphologically and biochemically distinct from necrosis. Although the concept of apoptosis was introduced 43 years ago (Kerr et al 1972), the mechanisms of how apoptosis is initiated and executed remained unclear until recently.
- Ansamycins is a family of secondary metabolites that show antimicrobial activity against many gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria and includes various compounds, among which: streptovaricins and rifamycins. In addition, these compounds demonstrate antiviral activity towards bacteriophages and poxviruses.
- In a study on how the ALK-5 inhibitor A-83-01 inhibits Smad signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by transforming growth factor-Î², A-83-01 was synthesized and characterized a small molecule inhibitor. It is structurally similar to previously reported ALK-5 inhibitors developed by Sawyer et al. (2003) and blocks signaling of type I serine/threonine kinase receptors for cytokines of the TGF-Î² superfamily (known as activin receptor-like kinases; ALKs).
- HPCs AND THEIR PROGENY The role of hematopoietic cells in tumor angiogenesis has recently received great attention. HPC from the bone marrow emigrate to the blood and tissues and differentiate to form cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes can either protect against or promote tumor formation. The simplest example of the former is loss of immune...
- Solid tumors are complex â€œorgansâ€ of cancer cells and a heterogeneous population of hematopoietic cells, mesenchymal cells, and endothelial cells. The cancer stem cell model proposes that tumor growth and progression is driven by rare populations of cancer stem cells