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  • Developmental exposure to the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan alters expression of proteins associated with neurotransmission in the frontal cortex

    Wilson, WW; Onyenwe, W; Bradner, JM; Nennig, SE; Caudle, WM;
    Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322-3090
    Exposure to environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine insecticides during critical periods of neurodevelopment has been shown to be a major contributor to several neuropsychological deficits seen in children, adolescence, and adults. Although the neurobehavioral outcomes resulting from exposure to these compounds are known the neurotransmitter circuitry and molecular targets that mediate these endpoints have not been identified. Given the importance of the frontal cortex in facilitating numerous neuropsychological processes, our current study sought to investigate the effects of developmental exposure to the organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan, on the expression of specific proteins associated with neurotransmission in the frontal cortex. Utilizing in vitro models we were able to show endosulfan reduces cell viability in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells in addition to reducing synaptic puncta and neurite outgrowth in primary cultured neurons isolated from the frontal cortex of mice. Elaborating these findings to an in vivo model we found that developmental exposure of female mice to endosulfan during gestation and lactation elicited significant alterations to the GABAergic (GAT1, vGAT, GABAA receptor), glutamatergic (vGlut and GluN2B receptor), and dopaminergic (DAT, TH, VMAT2, and D2 receptor) neurotransmitter systems in the frontal cortex of male offspring. These findings identify damage to critical neurotransmitter circuits and proteins in the frontal cortex, which may underlie the neurobehavioral deficits observed following developmental exposure to endosulfan and other organochlorine insecticides. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • DNA damage checkpoint responses in the S phase of synchronized diploid human fibroblasts

    Chastain, PD; Brylawski, BP; Zhou, YC; Rao, S; Chu, H; Ibrahim, JG; Kaufmann, WK; Cordeiro-Stone, M;
    College of Osteopathic Medicine, William Carey University, Hattiesburg, MS
    We investigated the hypothesis that the strength of the activation of the intra-S DNA damage checkpoint varies within the S phase. Synchronized diploid human fibroblasts were exposed to either 0 or 2.5 J m(-2) UVC in early, mid- and late-S phase. The endpoints measured were the following: (1) radio-resistant DNA synthesis (RDS), (2) induction of Chk1 phosphorylation, (3) initiation of new replicons and (4) length of replication tracks synthesized after irradiation. RDS analysis showed that global DNA synthesis was inhibited by approximately the same extent (30 ± 12%), regardless of when during S phase the fibroblasts were exposed to UVC. Western blot analysis revealed that the UVC-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) on serine 345 was high in early and mid S but 10-fold lower in late S. DNA fiber immunostaining studies indicated that the replication fork displacement rate decreased in irradiated cells at the three time points examined; however, replicon initiation was inhibited strongly in early and mid S, but this response was attenuated in late S. These results suggest that the intra-S checkpoint activated by UVC-induced DNA damage is not as robust toward the end of S phase in its inhibition of the latest firing origins in human fibroblasts. © 2014 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Photobiology.
  • Alteration to Dopaminergic Synapses Following Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS), in Vitro and in Vivo

    Patel, R; Bradner, JM; Stout, KA; Caudle, WM;
    Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Our understanding of the contribution exposure to environmental toxicants has on neurological disease continues to evolve. Of these, Parkinson s disease (PD) has been shown to have a strong environmental component to its etiopathogenesis. However, work is still needed to identify and characterize environmental chemicals that could alter the expression and function of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Of particular interest is the neurotoxicological effect of perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which has been demonstrated to alter aspects of dopamine signaling. Using in vitro approaches, we have elaborated these initial findings to demonstrate the neurotoxicity of PFOS to the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and dopaminergic primary cultured neurons. Using an in vivo model, we did not observe a deficit to dopaminergic terminals in the striatum of mice exposed to 10 mg/kg PFOS for 14 days. However, subsequent exposure to the selective dopaminergic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) significantly reduced the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and resulted in an even greater reduction in DAT expression in animals previously exposed to PFOS. These findings suggest that PFOS is neurotoxic to the nigrostriatal dopamine circuit and this neurotoxicity could prime the dopamine terminal to more extensive damage following additional toxicological insults.

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