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Items 11 to 15 of 3141 total

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  • Reversal of Phospholamban Inhibition of the Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) Using Short, Protein-interacting RNAs and Oligonucleotide Analogs

    Soller, KJ; Yang, J; Veglia, G; Bowser, MT;
    From the Departments of Chemistry
    Product(s): A23187
    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and phospholamban (PLN) complex regulates heart relaxation through its removal of cytosolic Ca2+ during diastole. Dysfunction of this complex has been related to many heart disorders and is therefore a key pharmacological target. There are currently no therapeutics that directly target either SERCA or PLN. It has been previously reported that single-stranded DNA binds PLN with strong affinity and relieves inhibition of SERCA in a length-dependent manner. In the current article, we demonstrate that RNAs and single-stranded oligonucleotide analogs, or xeno nucleic acids (XNAs), also bind PLN strongly (Kd <10 nm) and relieve inhibition of SERCA. Affinity for PLN is sequence-independent. Relief of PLN inhibition is length-dependent, allowing SERCA activity to be restored incrementally. The improved in vivo stability of XNAs offers more realistic pharmacological potential than DNA or RNA. We also found that microRNAs (miRNAs) 1 and 21 bind PLN strongly and relieve PLN inhibition of SERCA to a greater extent than a similar length random sequence RNA mixture. This may suggest that miR-1 and miR-21 have evolved to contain distinct sequence elements that are more effective at relieving PLN inhibition than random sequences. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
  • Synaptic protein synthesis associated with memory is regulated by the RISC pathway in Drosophila

    Ashraf, SI; McLoon, AL; Sclarsic, SM; Kunes, S;
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Long-lasting forms of memory require protein synthesis, but how the pattern of synthesis is related to the storage of a memory has not been determined. Here we show that neural activity directs the mRNA of the Drosophila Ca(2+), Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CaMKII), to postsynaptic sites, where it is rapidly translated. These features of CaMKII synthesis are recapitulated during the induction of a long-term memory and produce patterns of local protein synthesis specific to the memory. We show that mRNA transport and synaptic protein synthesis are regulated by components of the RISC pathway, including the SDE3 helicase Armitage, which is specifically required for long-lasting memory. Armitage is localized to synapses and lost in a memory-specific pattern that is inversely related to the pattern of synaptic protein synthesis. Therefore, we propose that degradative control of the RISC pathway underlies the pattern of synaptic protein synthesis associated with a stable memory.
  • Small molecular compounds that inhibit hepatitis C virus replication through destabilizing heat shock cognate 70 messenger RNA

    Peng, ZG; Fan, B; Du, NN; Wang, YP; Gao, LM; Li, YH; Li, YH; Liu, F; You, XF; Han, YX; Zhao, ZY; Cen, S; Li, JR; Song, DQ; Jiang, JD;
    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Host heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) protein is packaged into hepatitis C viral (HCV) particles as a structural component of the virus in the assembly process. It helps HCV RNA release into the cytoplasm in the next infection cycle. The goal of this study is to investigate whether chemically down-regulating host Hsc70 expression could be a novel strategy to interrupt HCV replication. Compounds were screened with an Hsc70 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay. IMB-DM122 was found to be an effective and safe inhibitor for Hsc70 mRNA/protein expression in human hepatocytes. IMB-DM122 inhibited HCV replication through destabilization of Hsc70 mRNA, and the half-life of host Hsc70 mRNA was reduced by 78% after the compound treatment. The Hsc70 mRNA 3 untranslated region sequence is the element responsible for the effect of IMB-DM122 on Hsc70 mRNA. The compound appears to be highly efficient in inhibiting Hsc70-related HCV replication. Treatment of the HCV-infected hepatocytes with IMB-DM122 reduced the virion encapsidation of Hsc70, and therefore disrupted HCV replication and the infection cycle. IMB-DM122 showed considerable good safety in vitro as well as in vivo with no indication of harmful effect on liver and kidney functions. Hsc70 might be a new drug target and mechanism to inhibit HCV proliferation.
  • Heat stress cognate 70 host protein as a potential drug target against drug resistance in hepatitis B virus

    Wang, YP; Liu, F; He, HW; Han, YX; Peng, ZG; Li, BW; You, XF; Song, DQ; Li, ZR; Yu, LY; Cen, S; Hong, B; Sun, CH; Zhao, LX; Kreiswirth, B; Perlin, D; Shao, RG; Jiang, JD;
    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Heat stress cognate 70 (Hsc70) is a host protein associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The goal of this study was to investigate whether Hsc70 could be an anti-HBV drug target. Our results showed that introducing Hsc70 increased HBV replication in HBV(+) human hepatocytes (HepG2.2.15 cells). The coiled-coil region on Hsc70 (nucleotides 1533 to 1608; amino acids 511 to 536) was the key sequence for HBV replication. Knockdown of Hsc70 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) largely inhibited HBV replication with no cytotoxicity to the host. Using an Hsc70 mRNA screening assay, the natural compound oxymatrine (OMTR) was found to be a selective inhibitor for Hsc70 expression. Then, OMTR was used to investigate the potential of Hsc70 as an anti-HBV drug target. OMTR inhibited Hsc70 mRNA expression by 80% and HBV DNA replication by over 60% without causing cytotoxicity. The anti-HBV effect of OMTR appeared to be mediated by destabilizing Hsc70 mRNA. The half-life (T(1/2)) of Hsc70 mRNA decreased by 50% in OMTR-treated hepatocytes. The Hsc70 mRNA 3 -untranslated-region (UTR) sequence was the element responsible for OMTR s destabilization activity. OMTR suppressed HBV de novo synthesis at the reverse transcription stage from pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) to DNA and was active against either wild-type HBV or strains resistant to lamivudine, adefovir, and entecavir. Therefore, host Hsc70 could be a novel drug target against HBV, and OMTR appears to inhibit HBV replication by destabilizing Hsc70 mRNA. As the target is not a viral protein, OMTR is active for either wild-type HBV or strains resistant to reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors.

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