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Items 16 to 20 of 3141 total

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  • Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits lung epithelial Na+ channels by up-regulating inducible nitric-oxide synthase

    Song, W; Liu, G; Bosworth, CA; Walker, JR; Megaw, GA; Lazrak, A; Abraham, E; Sullender, WM; Matalon, S;
    Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been shown to reduce Na+-driven alveolar fluid clearance in BALB/c mice in vivo. To investigate the cellular mechanisms by which RSV inhibits amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC), the main pathways through which Na+ ions enter lung epithelial cells, we infected human Clara-like lung (H441) cells with RSV that expresses green fluorescent protein (rRA2). 3-6 days later patch clamp recordings showed that infected cells (i.e. cells expressing green fluorescence; GFP+) had significantly lower whole-cell amiloride-sensitive currents and single channel activity (NPo) as compared with non-infected (GFP-), non-inoculated, or cells infected with UV-inactivated RSV. Both alpha and beta ENaC mRNA levels were significantly reduced in GFP+ cells as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Infection with RSV increased expression of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrite concentration in the culture medium; nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit and NF-kappaB activation were also up-regulated. iNOS up-regulation in GFP+ cells was prevented by knocking down IkappaB kinase gamma before infection. Furthermore, pretreatment of H441 cells with the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W (1 microM) resulted in a doubling of the amiloride-sensitive Na+ current in GFP+ cells. Additionally, preincubation of H441 cells with A77-1726 (20 microM), a de novo UTP synthesis inhibitor, and 1400W completely reversed the RSV inhibition of amiloride-sensitive currents in GFP+ cells. Thus, both UTP- and iNOS-generated reactive species contribute to ENaC down-regulation in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells.
  • Nongenotropic, anti-apoptotic signaling of 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and analogs through the ligand binding domain of the vitamin D receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Mediation by Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-, and JNK kinases

    Vertino, AM; Bula, CM; Chen, JR; Almeida, M; Han, L; Bellido, T; Kousteni, S; Norman, AW; Manolagas, SC;
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Center for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Because sex steroids regulate the life span of bone cells by modulating cytoplasmic kinase activity via a nongenotropic action of their classical receptors, we have explored the possibility that the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) might exhibit similar nongenotropic actions. We report that the conformationally flexible full VDR agonist, 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3), and the 6-s-cis-locked 1alpha,25(OH)2-lumisterol3 (JN) analog, also acting through the VDR but with poor transcriptional activity, protected murine osteoblastic or osteocytic cells from apoptosis. This effect was reproduced in HeLa cells transiently transfected with either wild type VDR or a mutant consisting of only the VDR ligand binding domain. The VDR ligand binding domain bound [3H]1alpha,25(OH)2D3 as effectively as wild type VDR but did not induce vitamin D response element-mediated transcription. The anti-apoptotic effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and the 6-s-cis-locked 1alpha,25(OH)2-lumisterol3 analog in calvaria cells were blocked by three cytoplasmic kinase inhibitors: Src kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor Wortmannin, and the JNK kinase inhibitor SP600125. However, inhibition of p38 with SB203580 or ERK with either U0126 or a transfected dominant negative MEK did not interfere with these anti-apoptotic actions. Further, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induced rapid (5 min) association of VDR with Src kinase in OB-6 cells. Finally, actinomycin D or cycloheximide prevented the anti-apoptotic effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, indicating that transcriptional events are also required. These findings suggest that nongenotropic modulation of kinase activity is also a general property of the VDR and that ligands that activate nongenotropic signals, but lack transcriptional activity, display different biological profiles from the steroid hormone 1alpha,25(OH)2D3.
  • A trimeric anti-HER2/neu ScFv and tumor necrosis factor-alpha fusion protein induces HER2/neu signaling and facilitates repair of injured epithelia

    Huang, TH; Morrison, SL;
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Box 951489, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1489, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha genetically fused to the carboxyl terminus of a single-chain Fv (ScFv) antibody specific for the human HER2/neu (anti-HER2/neu ScFv-TNF-alpha) forms a homotrimeric structure that retains both TNF-alpha activity and the ability to bind HER2/neu. In contrast to anti-HER2/neu IgG3, anti-HER2/neu ScFv-TNF-alpha induces potent HER2/neu signaling, activating the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in SKBR3 cells. Activation of MAPK and Akt by anti-HER2/neu ScFv-TNF-alpha inhibited the apoptosis of SKBR3 cells induced by actinomycin D. Remarkably, anti-HER2/neu ScFv-TNF-alpha facilitated the repair of injured epithelia. Accelerated wound healing required binding to HER2/neu but not TNF-alpha activity since anti-HER2/neu ScFv-TNF-alpha (S147Y), containing a mutant TNF-alpha with significantly decreased biological activity, demonstrated equivalent ability to facilitate wound healing and soluble HER2/neu inhibited the effect. These results suggest that trimeric anti-HER2/neu ScFv has the potential to facilitate wound healing. In addition, fusion with TNF-alpha provides a novel approach to producing polymeric antibodies.
  • Control of gene expression during T cell activation: alternate regulation of mRNA transcription and mRNA stability

    Cheadle, C; Fan, J; Cho-Chung, YS; Werner, T; Ray, J; Do, L; Gorospe, M; Becker, KG;
    Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The effective correlation of observed changes in gene expression with shared transcription regulatory elements remains difficult to demonstrate convincingly. One reason for this difficulty may result from the intricate convergence of both transcriptional and mRNA turnover events which, together, directly influence steady-state mRNA levels. In order to investigate the relative contribution of gene transcription and changes in mRNA stability regulation to standard analyses of gene expression, we used two distinct microarray methods which individually measure nuclear gene transcription and changes in polyA mRNA gene expression. Gene expression profiles were obtained from both polyA mRNA (whole-cell) and nuclear run-on (newly transcribed) RNA across a time course of one hour following the activation of human Jurkat T cells with PMA plus ionomycin. Comparative analysis revealed that regulation of mRNA stability may account for as much as 50% of all measurements of changes in polyA mRNA in this system, as inferred by the absence of any corresponding regulation of nuclear gene transcription activity for these groups of genes. Genes which displayed dramatic elevations in both mRNA and nuclear run-on RNA were shown to be inhibited by Actinomycin D (ActD) pre-treatment of cells while large numbers of genes regulated only through altered mRNA turnover (both up and down) were ActD-resistant. Consistent patterns across the time course were observed for both transcribed and stability-regulated genes. We propose that regulation of mRNA stability contributes significantly to the observed changes in gene expression in response to external stimuli, as measured by high throughput systems.
  • Inhibition of interleukin-6 expression by the V protein of parainfluenza virus 5

    Lin, Y; Sun, M; Fuentes, SM; Keim, CD; Rothermel, T; He, B;
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    The V protein of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) plays an important role in the evasion of host immune responses. The V protein blocks interferon (IFN) signaling in human cells by causing degradation of the STAT1 protein, a key component of IFN signaling, and blocks IFN-beta production by preventing nuclear translocation of IRF3, a key transcription factor for activating IFN-beta promoter. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1beta, is a major proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in clearing virus infection through inflammatory responses. Many viruses have developed strategies to block IL-6 expression. Wild-type PIV5 infection induces little, if any, expression of cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-alpha, whereas infection by a mutant PIV5 lacking the conserved C-terminal cysteine rich domain (rPIV5VDeltaC) induced high levels of IL-6 expression. Examination of mRNA levels of IL-6 indicated that the transcription activation of IL-6 played an important role in the increased IL-6 expression. Co-infection with wild-type PIV5 prevented the activation of IL-6 transcription by rPIV5VDeltaC, and a plasmid encoding the full-length PIV5 V protein prevented the activation of IL-6 promoter-driven reporter gene expression by rPIV5VDeltaC, indicating that the V protein played a role in inhibiting IL-6 transcription. The activation of IL-6 was independent of IFN-beta even though rPIV5VDeltaC-infected cells produced IFN-beta. Using reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), it was found that NF-kappaB played an important role in activating expression of IL-6. We have proposed a model of activating and inhibiting IL-6 transcription by PIV5.

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