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Items 21 to 25 of 3141 total

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  • Paternal uniparental disomy with segmental loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 11 are hallmark characteristics of syndromic and sporadic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

    Robbins, KM; Stabley, DL; Holbrook, J; Sahraoui, R; Sadreameli, A; Conard, K; Baker, L; Gripp, KW; Sol-Church, K;
    Department of Biomedical Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Costello syndrome (CS) arises from a typically paternally derived germline mutation in the proto-oncogene HRAS, and is considered a rasopathy. CS results in failure-to-thrive, intellectual disabilities, short stature, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and a predisposition for cancer, most commonly embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). The goal of this study was to characterize CS ERMS at the molecular level and to determine how divergent it is from sporadic ERMS. We characterized eleven ERMS tumors from eight unrelated CS patients, carrying paternally derived HRAS c.34G>A (p.Gly12Ser; 6) or c.35G>C (p.Gly12Ala; 2) mutations. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was evaluated in all CS ERMS by microarray and/or short tandem repeat (STR) markers spanning the entire chromosome 11. Eight CS ERMS tumors displayed complete paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11 (pUPD11), whereas two displayed UPD only at 11p and a second primary ERMS tumor showed UPD limited to 11p15.5, the classical hallmark for ERMS. Three sporadic ERMS cell lines (RD, Rh36, Rh18) and eight formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) ERMS tumors were also analyzed for RAS mutations and LOH status. We found a higher than anticipated frequency of RAS mutations (HRAS or NRAS; 50%) in sporadic ERMS cell lines/tumors. Unexpectedly, complete uniparental disomy (UPD11) was observed in five specimens, while the other six showed LOH extending across the p and q arms of chromosome 11. In this study, we are able to clearly demonstrate complete UPD11 in both syndromic and sporadic ERMS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Identifying drug-microbiome interactions: the inactivation of doxorubicin by the gut bacterium Raoultella planticola

    Yan, A;
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
      The human gut microbiota contributes to host metabolic processes. Diverse microbial metabolic enzymes can affect therapeutic agents, resulting in chemical modifications that alter drug efficacy and toxicology. These interactions may result in ineffective treatments and dose-limiting side effects, as shown by bacterial modifications of the cardiac drug digoxin and chemotherapy drug irinotecan, respectively. Yet, few drug-microbiome interactions have been characterized. Here, a platform is developed to screen for drug-microbiome interactions, validated by the isolation of a gut bacterium capable of inactivating the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin. Two hundred gut strains isolated from a healthy patient fecal sample were cultured in the presence of antibiotic and antineoplastic drugs to enrich for resistance and possible inactivation. Raoultella planticola was identified for its ability to inactivate doxorubicin anaerobically through whole cell and crude lysate assays. This activity was also observed in other Enterobacteriaceae and resulted in doxorubicin inactivation by the removal of its daunosamine sugar, likely mediated by a molybdopterin-dependent enzyme. Other potential drug-microbiome interactions were identified in this screen and can be analyzed further. This platform enables the identification of drug-microbiome interactions that can be used to study drug pharmacology, improve the efficacy of therapeutic treatments, and advance personalized medicine.
  • Cytotoxicity of Zardaverine in Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma from a Costello Syndrome Patient

    Cartledge, DM; Robbins, KM; Drake, KM; Sternberg, R; Stabley, DL; Gripp, KW; Kolb, EA; Sol-Church, K; Napper, AD;
    High-Throughput Screening and Drug Discovery Laboratory, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Nemours Biomedical Research, Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA
    Product(s): Actinomycin D
    Costello syndrome (CS) patients suffer from a very high 10% incidence of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). As tools to discover targeted therapeutic leads, we used a CS patient-derived ERMS cell line (CS242 ERMS) harboring a homozygous p.G12A mutation in HRAS, and a control cell line derived from the same patient comprising non-malignant CS242 fibroblasts with a heterozygous p.G12A HRAS mutation. A library of 2,000 compounds with known pharmacological activities was screened for their effect on CS242 ERMS cell viability. Follow-up testing in a panel of cell lines revealed that various compounds originally developed for other indications were remarkably selective; notably, the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor zardaverine was at least 1,000-fold more potent in CS242 ERMS than in the patient-matched non-malignant CS242 fibroblasts, other ERMS, or normal fibroblasts. Chronic treatment with zardaverine led to the emergence of resistant cells, consistent with CS242 ERMS comprising a mixed population of cells. Many PDE inhibitors in addition to zardaverine were tested on CS242 ERMS, but almost all had no effect. Interestingly, zardaverine and analogs showed a similar cytotoxicity profile in CS242 ERMS and cervical carcinoma-derived HeLa cells, suggesting a mechanism of action common to both cell types that does not require the presence of an HRAS mutation (HeLa contains wild type HRAS). Two recent studies presented possible mechanistic explanations for the cytotoxicity of zardaverine in HeLa cells. One revealed that zardaverine inhibited a HeLa cell-based screen measuring glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation; however, using engineered HeLa cells, we ruled out a specific effect of zardaverine on signaling through the GR. The second attributed zardaverine toxicity in HeLa cells to promotion of the interaction of phosphodiesterase 3A and the growth regulatory protein Schlafen 12. We speculate that this work may provide a possible mechanism for zardaverine action in CS242 ERMS, although we have not yet tested this hypothesis. In conclusion, we have identified zardaverine as a potent cytotoxic agent in a CS-derived ERMS cell line and in HeLa. Although we have ruled out some possibilities, the mechanism of action of zardaverine in CS242 ERMS remains to be determined.
  • A balance between elongation and trimming regulates telomere stability in stem cells

    Rivera, T; Haggblom, C; Cosconati, S; Karlseder, J;
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA
    Telomere length maintenance ensures self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); however, the mechanisms governing telomere length homeostasis in these cell types are unclear. Here, we report that telomere length is determined by the balance between telomere elongation, which is mediated by telomerase, and telomere trimming, which is controlled by XRCC3 and Nbs1, homologous recombination proteins that generate single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA and double-stranded telomeric circular DNA (T-circles), respectively. We found that reprogramming of differentiated cells induces T-circle and single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA accumulation, indicating the activation of telomere trimming pathways that compensate telomerase-dependent telomere elongation in hiPSCs. Excessive telomere elongation compromises telomere stability and promotes the formation of partially single-stranded telomeric DNA circles (C-circles) in hESCs, suggesting heightened sensitivity of stem cells to replication stress at overly long telomeres. Thus, tight control of telomere length homeostasis is essential to maintain telomere stability in hESCs.

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