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Items 3126 to 3129 of 3129 total

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  • Multivariate Analysis Reveals That Unsubstituted β-Ring and C8-Keto Structures Are Important Factors for Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Carotenoids

    Manabe, Y; Tomonaga, N; Maoka, T; Sugawara, T
    Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
    Product(s): Astaxanthin
    Carotenoids are natural lipophilic pigments with substantial health benefits. Numerous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activities of carotenoids, especially toward lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. As such, there are few reports on the evaluation and comparison of the anti-inflammatory activities of carotenoids against inflammation induced by other stimuli. In this study, we used pathogen-associated molecular patterns, proinflammatory cytokines, degenerated proteins, and chemical irritants as inflammatory inducers to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of eight different carotenoids. Each carotenoid showed characteristic anti-inflammatory activities; thus, we conducted a multivariate analysis to clarify the differences among them. Unsubstituted β-ring (i.e., provitamin A) and C8-keto structures of carotenoids were found to be crucial for their inhibitory effects on the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and interferon regulatory factors, respectively. Furthermore, we found that β-carotene and echinenone treatment increased intracellular retinoid levels in monocytes and that the retinoids showed the similar activities to β-carotene and echinenone. Taken together, the intake of both provitamin A and C8-keto carotenoids (e.g., siphonaxanthin and fucoxanthin) might be effective in improving the inflammatory status of individuals. A multivariate analysis of anti-inflammatory activities is a useful method for characterizing anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases drive neutrophil extracellular trap formation and potentiate local and systemic inflammation

    Poli, V; Pui-Yan Ma, V; Di Gioia, M; Broggi, A; Benamar, M; Chen, Q; Mazitschek, R; Haggarty, S; Chatila, T; Karp, J; Zanoni, I
    Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Immunology, Boston, 02115 MA, USA
    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) driven by viruses or bacteria, as well as in numerous immune-mediated disorders. Histone citrullination by the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and the consequent decondensation of chromatin are hallmarks in the induction of NETs. Nevertheless, additional histone modifications that may govern NETosis are largely overlooked. Herein, we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play critical roles in driving NET formation in human and mouse neutrophils. HDACs belonging to the zinc-dependent lysine deacetylases family are necessary to deacetylate histone H3, thus allowing the activity of PAD4 and NETosis. Of note, HDAC inhibition in mice protects against microbial-induced pneumonia and septic shock, decreasing NETosis and inflammation. Collectively, our findings illustrate a new fundamental step that governs the release of NETs and points to HDAC inhibitors as therapeutic agents that may be used to protect against ARDS and sepsis.
  • Anti-CD40 Antibodies Fused to CD40 Ligand Have Superagonist Properties

    Ceglia, V; Zurawski, S; Montes, M; Bouteau, A; Wang, Z; Ellis, J; Igyártó, BZ; Lévy, Y; Zurawski, G
    Baylor Scott & White Immunology Research, Dallas, TX
    CD40 is a potent activating receptor within the TNFR family expressed on APCs of the immune system, and it regulates many aspects of B and T cell immunity via interaction with CD40 ligand (CD40L; CD154) expressed on the surface of activated T cells. Soluble CD40L and agonistic mAbs directed to CD40 are being explored as adjuvants in therapeutic or vaccination settings. Some anti-CD40 Abs can synergize with soluble monomeric CD40L. We show that direct fusion of CD40L to certain agonistic anti-CD40 Abs confers superagonist properties, reducing the dose required for efficacy, notably greatly increasing total cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells. The tetravalent configuration of anti-CD40-CD40L Abs promotes CD40 cell surface clustering and internalization and is the likely mechanism of increased receptor activation. CD40L fused to either the L or H chain C termini, with or without flexible linkers, were all superagonists with greater potency than CD40L trimer. The increased anti-CD40-CD40L Ab potency was independent of higher order aggregation. Moreover, the anti-CD40-CD40L Ab showed higher potency in vivo in human CD40 transgenic mice compared with the parental anti-CD40 Ab. To broaden the concept of fusing agonistic Ab to natural ligand, we fused OX40L to an agonistic OX40 Ab, and this resulted in dramatically increased efficacy for proliferation and cytokine production of activated human CD4+ T cells as well as releasing the Ab from dependency on cross-linking. This work shows that directly fusing antireceptor Abs to ligand is a useful strategy to dramatically increase agonist potency.
  • NMUR1 in the NMU-Mediated Regulation of Bone Remodeling

    Hsiao, YT; Manikowski, KJ; Snyder, S; Griffin, N; Orr, AL; Hulsey, EQ; Born-Evers, G; Zukosky, T; Squire, ME; Hum, JM; Metzger, CE; Allen, MR; Lowery, JW
    Division of Biomedical Science, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46022, USA
    Neuromedin-U (NMU) is an evolutionarily conserved peptide that regulates varying physiologic effects including blood pressure, stress and allergic responses, metabolic and feeding behavior, pain perception, and neuroendocrine functions. Recently, several lines of investigation implicate NMU in regulating bone remodeling. For instance, global loss of NMU expression in male and female mice leads to high bone mass due to elevated bone formation rate with no alteration in bone resorption rate or observable defect in skeletal patterning. Additionally, NMU treatment regulates the activity of osteoblasts in vitro. The downstream pathway utilized by NMU to carry out these effects is unknown as NMU signals via two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1), and NMU receptor 2 (NMUR2), and both are expressed in the postnatal skeleton. Here, we sought to address this open question and build a better understanding of the downstream pathway utilized by NMU. Our approach involved the knockdown of Nmur1 in MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and a global knockout of Nmur1 in vivo. We detail specific cell signaling events (e.g., mTOR phosphorylation) that are deficient in the absence of NMUR1 expression yet trabecular bone volume in femora and tibiae of 12-week-old male Nmur1 knockout mice are unchanged, compared to controls. These results suggest that NMUR1 is required for NMU-dependent signaling in MC3T3-E1 cells, but it is not required for the NMU-mediated effects on bone remodeling in vivo. Future studies examining the role of NMUR2 are required to determine the downstream pathway utilized by NMU to regulate bone remodeling in vivo.

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