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Items 41 to 45 of 3044 total

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  • The activation loop phosphorylation of protein kinase D is an early marker of neuronal DNA damage

    Besirli, CG; Johnson, EM;
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    In neurons, DNA damage induces protein synthesis-dependent apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial intrinsic cell-death pathway. Signal transduction cascades activated by genotoxic stress upstream of the mitochondria are largely unknown. We identified protein kinase D (PKD) as one of the earliest markers of neuronal DNA damage. Phosphorylation of the PKD-activation domain could be detected within 15 min of genotoxic stress and was concurrent with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) activation. PKD stimulation was selective to DNA damage and did not occur with other stress stimuli examined. In vivo, both young and adult rats showed increased levels of phosphorylated PKD in neuronal tissues after injection of DNA-toxin etoposide. These results indicate that PKD activation is an early neuronal response to DNA damage, suggesting that signaling downstream of PKD may be critical for neuronal survival after genotoxic stress.
  • Identification of JNK-dependent and -independent components of cerebellar granule neuron apoptosis

    Harris, C; Maroney, A; Johnson, E;
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, Box 8103, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cerebellar granule neurons grown in high potassium undergo rapid apoptosis when switched to medium containing 5 mm potassium, a stimulus mimicking deafferentation. This cell death can be blocked by genetic deletion of Bax, a member of the pro‐apoptotic Bcl‐2 family, cycloheximide an inhibitor of macromolecular synthesis or expression of dominant‐negative c‐jun. These observations suggest that Bax activation is the result of c‐jun target gene(s) up‐regulation following trophic withdrawal. Candidate genes include the BH3‐only Bcl‐2 family members Dp5 and Bim. The molecular mechanisms underlying granule cell neuronal apoptosis in response to low potassium were investigated using CEP‐1347 (KT7515), an inhibitor of the MLK family of JNKKK. CEP‐1347 provided protection of potassium–serum‐deprived granule cells, but such neuroprotection was not long term. The incomplete protection was not due to incomplete blockade of the JNK signaling pathway because c‐jun phosphorylation as well as induction of c‐jun RNA and protein were completely blocked by CEP‐1347. Following potassium–serum deprivation the JNKK MKK4 becomes phosphorylated, an event blocked by CEP‐1347. Cells that die in the presence of CEP‐1347 activate caspases; and dual inhibition of caspases and MLKs has additive, not synergistic, effects on survival. A lack of synergism was also seen with the p38 inhibitor SB203580, indicating that the neuroprotective effect of the JNK pathway inhibitor cannot be explained by p38 activation. Activation of the JNK signaling pathway seems to be a key event in granule cell apoptosis, but these neurons cannot survive long term in the absence of sustained PI3 kinase signaling.
  • Mixed-lineage kinase inhibitors require the activation of Trk receptors to maintain long-term neuronal trophism and survival

    Wang, LH; Paden, AJ; Johnson, EM;
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Small-molecule mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitors, such as CEP-1347 [3,9-bis[(ethylthio)methyl]-(8R*,9S*,11S*)-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,8H, 11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo(a,g)cycloocta(cde)trinden-1-one] and CEP-11004 [3,9-bis-[(isopropylthio)methyl]-(8R*,9S*,11S*)-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,8H,11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo(a,g)cycloocta(cde)trinden-1-one], prevent c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation as well as the consequent neuronal cell death in many cell culture and animal models. In the cell culture model of nerve growth factor (NGF)-deprived sympathetic neurons, we find that CEP-11004 induced a approximately 3-fold increase in the mRNA and protein levels of TrkA, the NGF receptor. This resulted in ligand-independent activation of the TrkA receptor and the downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathway. Addition of the Trk inhibitor K252a [(8R*,9S*,11S*)-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,8H,11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo(a,g)cycloocta(cde)-trinden-1-one] or the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] significantly decreased the protein synthesis rates, mitochondrial function, and neuronal survival maintained by CEP-11004. In contrast to sympathetic neurons, MLK inhibitors maintain only short-term survival of potassium- and serum-deprived rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), despite continuous inhibition of the JNK pathway. We found that similar to sympathetic neurons, CEP-11004 increased the levels of the Trk receptor expressed in CGNs, TrkB. However, CGNs required the addition of the exogenous ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to activate the PI3-kinase pathway and to maintain long-term survival. BDNF activated TrkB, but caused rapid down-regulation of activated receptors and maintained only minimal survival. Therefore, increase in TrkB levels by CEP-11004 mediated a synergism with BDNF resulting in long-term survival in response to the combined treatment of CEP-11004 and BDNF. Taken together, our studies suggest that in addition to the direct inhibition of the JNK pathway, the indirect activation of the PI3-kinase pathway via Trk activation is important for MLK inhibitor-mediated neuronal survival and trophism.
  • Formaldehyde-induced genome instability is suppressed by an XPF-dependent pathway

    Kumari, A; Lim, YX; Newell, AH; Olson, SB; McCullough, AK;
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Formaldehyde is a reactive chemical that is commonly used in the production of industrial, laboratory, household, and cosmetic products. The causal association between formaldehyde exposure and increased incidence of cancer led the International Agency for Research on Cancer to classify formaldehyde as a carcinogen. Formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) elicit responses involving nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR) repair pathways; however, little is known about the cellular and genetic changes that subsequently lead to formaldehyde-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Herein, investigations of genes that modulate the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde exposure revealed that of five NER-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines tested, XPF- and ERCC1-deficient cells were most sensitive to formaldehyde treatment as compared to wild-type cells. Cell cycle analyses revealed that formaldehyde-treated XPF-deficient cells exhibited an immediate G2/M arrest that was associated with altered cell ploidy and apoptosis. Additionally, an elevated number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), chromosomal breaks and radial formation were also observed in XPF-deficient cells following formaldehyde treatment. Formaldehyde-induced DSBs occurred in a replication-dependent, but an XPF-independent manner. However, delayed DSB repair was observed in the absence of XPF function. Collectively, our findings highlight the role of an XPF-dependent pathway in mitigating the sensitivity to formaldehyde-induced DNA damage as evidenced by the increased genomic instability and reduced cell viability in an XPF-deficient background. In addition, centrosome and microtubule abnormalities, as well as enlarged nuclei, caused by formaldehyde exposure are demonstrated in a repair-proficient cell line. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Alterations to the circuitry of the frontal cortex following exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71

    Bradner, JM; Suragh, TA; Caudle, WM;
    Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322-3090, USA; Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322-3090, USA
    Recent studies have identified exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as a risk factor for deficits in cognitive functioning seen in children as well as adults. Additionally, similar alterations in learning and memory have also been observed in animal models of PBDE exposure. However, given these findings, the molecular alterations that may underlie these neurobehavioral endpoints have not been identified. As the frontal cortex is involved in modulating several cognitive functions, the purpose of our study was to investigate the possible changes to the GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems located in the frontal cortex following exposure to the PBDE mixture, DE-71. Primary cultured neurons isolated from the frontal cortex showed a dose-dependent reduction in neurons as well as neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, evaluation of DE-71 neurotoxicity in the frontal cortex using an in vivo model showed alterations to specific proteins involved in mediating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, including GAD67, vGAT, vGlut, and GABA(A) 2α receptor subunit. Interestingly, these alterations appeared to be preferential for the GABA and glutamate systems located in the frontal cortex. These findings identify specific targets of PBDE neurotoxicity and provide a possible molecular mechanism for PBDE-mediated neurobehavioral deficits that arise from the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

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