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  • Inhibition of the formation of EETs and 20-HETE with 1-aminobenzotriazole attenuates pressure natriuresis

    Dos Santos, EA; Dahly-Vernon, AJ; Hoagland, KM; Roman, RJ;
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Dept. of Physiology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    This study examined the effects of chronic blockade of the renal formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT; 50 mg.kg(-1). day(-1) ip for 5 days) on pressure natriuresis and the inhibitory effects of elevations in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and the distribution of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE)-3 in the proximal tubule of rats. In control rats (n = 15), sodium excretion rose from 2.3 +/- 0.4 to 19.4 +/- 1.8 microeq.min(-1).g kidney weight(-1) when RPP was increased from 114 +/- 1 to 156 +/- 2 mmHg. Fractional excretion of lithium rose from 28 +/- 3 to 43 +/- 3% of the filtered load. Chronic treatment of the rats with ABT for 5 days (n = 8) blunted the natriuretic response to elevations in RPP by 75% and attenuated the increase in fractional excretion of lithium by 45%. In vehicle-treated rats, renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity fell from 31 +/- 5 to 19 +/- 2 micromol P(i).mg protein(-1).h(-1) and NHE-3 protein was internalized from the brush border of the proximal tubule after an elevation in RPP. In contrast, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and the distribution of NHE-3 protein remained unaltered in rats treated with ABT. These results suggest that cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid contribute to pressure natriuresis by inhibiting Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and promoting internalization of NHE-3 protein from the brush border of the proximal tubule.
  • A homozygous missense mutation in human KLOTHO causes severe tumoral calcinosis

    Ichikawa, S; Imel, EA; Kreiter, ML; Yu, X; Mackenzie, DS; Sorenson, AH; Goetz, R; Mohammadi, M; White, KE; Econs, MJ;
    Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5121, USA
    Product(s): AEBSF HCl
    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia due to inactivating mutations in FGF23 or UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). Herein we report a homozygous missense mutation (H193R) in the KLOTHO (KL) gene of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe tumoral calcinosis with dural and carotid artery calcifications. This patient exhibited defects in mineral ion homeostasis with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia as well as elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone and FGF23. Mapping of H193R mutation onto the crystal structure of myrosinase, a plant homolog of KL, revealed that this histidine residue was at the base of the deep catalytic cleft and mutation of this histidine to arginine should destabilize the putative glycosidase domain (KL1) of KL, thereby attenuating production of membrane-bound and secreted KL. Indeed, compared with wild-type KL, expression and secretion of H193R KL were markedly reduced in vitro, resulting in diminished ability of FGF23 to signal via its cognate FGF receptors. Taken together, our findings provide what we believe to be the first evidence that loss-of-function mutations in human KL impair FGF23 bioactivity, underscoring the essential role of KL in FGF23-mediated phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis in humans.
  • The granzyme B inhibitor, protease inhibitor 9, is mainly expressed by dendritic cells and at immune-privileged sites

    Bladergroen, BA; Strik, MC; Bovenschen, N; van Berkum, O; Scheffer, GL; Meijer, CJ; Hack, CE; Kummer, JA;
    Department of Pathology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
    Product(s): AEBSF HCl
    Granzyme B is released from CTLs and NK cells and an important mediator of CTL/NK-induced apoptosis in target cells. The human intracellular serpin proteinase inhibitor (PI)9 is the only human protein able to inhibit the activity of granzyme B. As a first step to elucidate the physiological role of PI9, PI9 protein expression in various human tissues was studied. A mAb directed against human PI9 was developed, which specifically stained PI9-transfected COS-7 cells, and was used for immunohistochemistry. Both in primary lymphoid organs and in inflammatory infiltrates, PI9 was present in different subsets of dendritic cells. Also T-lymphocytes in primary and organ-associated lymphoid tissues were PI9 positive. Endothelial cells of small vessels in most organs tested as well as the endothelial layer of large veins and arteries showed strong PI9 staining. Surprisingly, high PI9 protein expression was also found at immune-privileged sites like the placenta, the testis, the ovary, and the eye. These data fit with the hypothesis that PI9 is expressed at sites where degranulation of CTL or NK cells is potentially deleterious.
  • Distribution of the human intracellular serpin protease inhibitor 8 in human tissues

    Strik, MC; Bladergroen, BA; Wouters, D; Kisiel, W; Hooijberg, JH; Verlaan, AR; Hordijk, PL; Schneider, P; Hack, CE; Kummer, JA;
    VU University Medical Center, Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Product(s): AEBSF HCL
    Ovalbumin-like serine protease inhibitors are mainly localized intracellularly and their in vivo functions are largely unknown. To elucidate their physiological role(s), we studied the expression of one of these inhibitors, protease inhibitor 8 (PI-8), in normal human tissues by immunohistochemistry using a PI-8-specific monoclonal antibody. PI-8 was strongly expressed in the nuclei of squamous epithelium of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and epidermis, and by the epithelial layer of skin appendages, particularly by more differentiated epithelial cells. PI-8 was also expressed by monocytes and by neuroendocrine cells in the pituitary gland, pancreas, and digestive tract. Monocytes showed nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of PI-8, whereas neuroendocrine cells showed only cytoplasmic staining. In vitro nuclear localization of PI-8 was confirmed by confocal analysis using serpin-transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, mutation of the P(1) residue did not affect the subcellular distribution pattern of PI-8, indicating that its nuclear localization is independent of the interaction with its target protease. We conclude that PI-8 has a unique distribution pattern in human tissues compared to the distribution patterns of other intracellular serpins. Additional studies must be performed to elucidate its physiological role.
  • Identification of an allosteric pocket on human hsp70 reveals a mode of inhibition of this therapeutically important protein

    Rodina, A; Patel, PD; Kang, Y; Patel, Y; Baaklini, I; Wong, MJ; Taldone, T; Yan, P; Yang, C; Maharaj, R; Gozman, A; Patel, MR; Patel, HJ; Chirico, W; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Talele, TT; Young, JC; Chiosis, G;
    Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Product(s): AEBSF HCl
    Hsp70s are important cancer chaperones that act upstream of Hsp90 and exhibit independent anti-apoptotic activities. To develop chemical tools for the study of human Hsp70, we developed a homology model that unveils a previously unknown allosteric site located in the nucleotide binding domain of Hsp70. Combining structure-based design and phenotypic testing, we discovered a previously unknown inhibitor of this site, YK5. In cancer cells, this compound is a potent and selective binder of the cytosolic but not the organellar human Hsp70s and has biological activity partly by interfering with the formation of active oncogenic Hsp70/Hsp90/client protein complexes. YK5 is a small molecule inhibitor rationally designed to interact with an allosteric pocket of Hsp70 and represents a previously unknown chemical tool to investigate cellular mechanisms associated with Hsp70. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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