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Items 3061 to 3065 of 3065 total

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  • Synaptopodin is required for stress fiber and contractomere assembly at the epithelial junction

    Morris, T; Sue, E; Geniesse, C; Brieher, W; Tang, V
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
    The apical junction of epithelial cells can generate force to control cell geometry and perform contractile processes while maintaining barrier function and cell-cell adhesion. Yet, the structural basis of force generation at the apical junction is not completely understood. Here, we describe 2 actomyosin structures at the apical junction containing synaptopodin, myosin IIB, and alpha-actinin-4. We showed that synaptopodin is required for the assembly of E-cadherin-associated apical stress fibers and a novel macromolecular structure, which we named contractomere. Knockdown of synaptopodin abolished both apical stress fiber and contractomere formation. Moreover, depletion of synaptopodin abolished basal stress fibers, converting myosin IIA sarcomere-like arrangement into a meshwork-type actomyosin organization. We propose a new model of junction dynamics that is dependent on contractomere movement to control epithelial cell boundary and geometry. Our findings reveal 2 actomyosin structures at the epithelial junction and underscore synaptopodin in the assembly of stress fibers and contractomeres.Summary StatementSynaptopodin assembles 2 actomyosin structures at the epithelial junction: apical stress fiber and contractomere. Synaptopodin selectively regulates myosin IIB without altering the level of myosin IIA and is responsible for converting evolutionary-conserved actomyosin meshwork into vertebrate-specific stress fibers.Graphic Abstract
  • Gene editing and synthetically accessible inhibitors reveal role for TPC2 in HCC cell proliferation and tumor growth

    Müller, M; Gerndt, S; Chao, YK; Zisis, T; Nguyen, ONP; Gerwien, A; Urban, N; Müller, C; Gegenfurtner, FA; Geisslinger, F; Ortler, C; Chen, CC; Zahler, S; Biel, M; Schaefer, M; Grimm, C; Bracher, F; Vollmar, AM; Bartel, K
    Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany
    The role of two-pore channel 2 (TPC2), one of the few cation channels localized on endolysosomal membranes, in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we report that TPC2 knockout reduces proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, affects their energy metabolism, and successfully abrogates tumor growth in vivo. Concurrently, we have developed simplified analogs of the alkaloid tetrandrine as potent TPC2 inhibitors by screening a library of synthesized benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives. Removal of dispensable substructures of the lead molecule tetrandrine increases antiproliferative properties against cancer cells and impairs proangiogenic signaling of endothelial cells to a greater extent than tetrandrine. Simultaneously, toxic effects on non-cancerous cells are reduced, allowing in vivo administration and revealing a TPC2 inhibitor with antitumor efficacy in mice. Hence, our study unveils TPC2 as valid target for cancer therapy and provides easily accessible tetrandrine analogs as a promising option for effective pharmacological interference.
  • Alteration of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 by MicroRNA-186 and 655 Regulates Invasion Ability of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Lee, SS; Choi, JH; Lim, SM; Kim, GJ; Lee, SK; Jeon, YK
    Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, Korea
    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) was recently shown to be involved in the progression as well as the metastasis of cancers. However, their expression and function in the invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remain unclear. The expressions of PTTG1 and PTTG1-targeted miRNA in oral SCC cell lines and their invasion capability depended on PTTG1 expression were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blots, the transwell insert system and Zymography. Invasion abilities were decreased in oral SCC cells treated with siRNA-PTTG1. When PTTG1 were downregulated in oral SCC cells treated with microRNA-186 and -655 inhibited their invasion abilities via MMP-9 activity. These results indicate that alteration of expression of PTTG1 in oral SCC cells by newly identified microRNA-186 and -655 can regulate invasion activity. Therefore, these data offer new insights into further understanding PTTG1 function in oral SCC and should provide new strategies for diagnostic markers for oral SCC.
  • Molecular Analysis of the Interaction between Human PTPN21 and the Oncoprotein E7 from Human Papillomavirus Genotype 18

    Lee, HS; Kim, MW; Jin, KS; Shin, HC; Kim, WK; Lee, SC; Kim, SJ; Lee, EW; Ku, B
    Disease Target Structure Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.||These authors contributed equally to this work
    Product(s): MG-132
    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cellular hyperproliferation-associated abnormalities including cervical cancer. The HPV genome encodes two major viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which recruit various host proteins by direct interaction for proteasomal degradation. Recently, we reported the structure of HPV18 E7 conserved region 3 (CR3) bound to the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain of PTPN14, a well-defined tumor suppressor, and found that this intermolecular interaction plays a key role in E7-driven transformation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we carried out a molecular analysis of the interaction between CR3 of HPV18 E7 and the PTP domain of PTPN21, a PTP protein that shares high sequence homology with PTPN14 but is putatively oncogenic rather than tumor-suppressive. Through the combined use of biochemical tools, we verified that HPV18 E7 and PTPN21 form a 2:2 complex, with a dissociation constant of 5 nM and a nearly identical binding manner with the HPV18 E7 and PTPN14 complex. Nevertheless, despite the structural similarities, the biological consequences of the E7 interaction were found to differ between the two PTP proteins. Unlike PTPN14, PTPN21 did not appear to be subjected to proteasomal degradation in HPV18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cells. Moreover, knockdown of PTPN21 led to retardation of the migration/invasion of HeLa cells and HPV18 E7-expressing HaCaT keratinocytes, which reflects its protumor activity. In conclusion, the associations of the viral oncoprotein E7 with PTPN14 and PTPN21 are similar at the molecular level but play different physiological roles.
  • PML-Dependent Memory of Type I Interferon Treatment Results in a Restricted Form of HSV Latency

    Suzich, J; Cuddy, S; Baidas, H; Dochnal, S; Ke, E; Schinlever, A; Babnis, A; Boutell, C; Cliffe, A
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22908
    Product(s): Aphidicolin
    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latent infection in long-lived neurons. During initial infection, neurons are exposed to multiple inflammatory cytokines but the effects of immune signaling on the nature of HSV latency is unknown. We show that initial infection of primary murine neurons in the presence of type I interferon (IFN) results in a form of latency that is restricted for reactivation. We also found that the subnuclear condensates, promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), are absent from primary sympathetic and sensory neurons but form with type I IFN treatment and persist even when IFN signaling resolves. HSV-1 genomes colocalized with PML-NBs throughout a latent infection of neurons only when type I IFN was present during initial infection. Depletion of PML prior to or following infection did not impact the establishment latency; however, it did rescue the ability of HSV to reactivate from IFN-treated neurons. This study demonstrates that viral genomes possess a memory of the IFN response during de novo infection, which results in differential subnuclear positioning and ultimately restricts the ability of genomes to reactivate.

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